Open Letter to the American Psychological Association
Coordinated by Parents and Teachers Against Violence in Education, 2003

P.O. Box 1033    Alamo, CA 94507-7033    Tel.: (925)-831-1661    FAX: (925) 838-8914    Web site:

July 8, 2003

Robert J. Sternberg, Ph.D., President
American Psychological Association
750 First Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002-4242

Dear Dr. Sternberg:

We, the undersigned, call upon the APA Council to update and revise its 1975 resolution regarding the corporal punishment of children. While notable for that time, the document, as it stands, does not adequately express the latest psychological understanding of the issue and its connections with epidemic levels of other forms of violence.

What is missing from the 1975 resolution is an unequivocal opposition to all corporal punishment. Twenty-seven years ago, the APA Council opposed corporal punishment by parental surrogates in public and private institutions, but not by parents or other family members. We do not see any scientific basis for this distinction. To the contrary, because children are most in need of their family members’ love and nurturance, corporal punishment from those closest to them can be even more damaging to their emotional well-being because it shatters the bond of trust in human relationship at its very foundations.

We urge you to take cognizance of the latest research in neurobiology, which shows how trauma affects children’s developing brains. In addition, please review other studies on the harm caused by corporal punishment that have been done in the years since your last resolution. Twelve countries around the world have now outlawed all corporal punishment. In 1979, Sweden was the first to do so. From 1975 to 1996, the percentage of youth sentenced for theft went down by 21%. During the same period, youthful drug and alcohol usage and suicides also were reduced. These changes show that ending corporal punishment did not result in an increase of out-of-control and delinquent youth.

The United Nations has declared 2001-2010 the International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the Children of the World. You can contribute to this initiative. Nonviolence begins at home. The ending of corporal punishment is a first step. The APA has sponsored Adults and Children Together (ACT)--Against Violence, which is, in your words, “a violence-prevention project composed of a national multimedia campaign and community-based training programs.” Please be thorough and consistent by adding categorical opposition to corporal punishment in the home as part of your campaign and training programs.

We recommend that you give an operational definition of corporal punishment, such as the one we propose below. See Appendix A. When you have made your new resolution, we request that you issue a national press release to call public attention to this important matter. Your acting in this way will be an exercise of needed professional and moral leadership. It will also make your position congruent with the knowledge acquired through research in clinical and developmental psychology, neurobiology, and social psychology.

It is a sad fact that the United States has not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It will be equally regrettable if the APA does not issue a resolution against all corporal punishment so that professional psychologists, psychotherapists, and the general public can benefit from this clear leadership. Some of the signatories of this letter are willing to volunteer to work on any re-writes, editing, and promotion of the updated APA resolution on corporal punishment.

The APA 1975 statement is appended below for your convenience. See Appendix B.

We look forward to your response.


Signatories are listed below alphabetically.

A, B   C, D   E, F   G, H   I, J   K, L   M, N   O, P   Q, R, S   T, U, V   W, X, Y, Z  

Updated December 22, 2005

A, B
Seham Abd el Salam, MD; Independent researcher and activist against male and female genital mutilation, Cairo, Egypt.

Melissa L. Abell, Ph.D., Professor, School of Social Work, Virginia Commonwealth University.

Jennifer C. Ablow, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of Oregon, Department of Psychology.

Marriam Abou-El-Haj, Lecturer, Department of Psychology, California State University, Chico.

Howard Adelman, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology & Co-director, School Mental Health Project/Center for Mental Health in Schools Department of Psychology, University of California Los Angeles.

Paula Allen-Meares, Ph.D., President of the Society for Social Work and Research; Dean and Norma Radin Collegiate Professor of Social Work, University of Michigan School of Social Work.

Judith L. Alpert, Ph.D., Professor of Applied Psychology, New York University.

Antonio G. Alvarez, MSW, CSW, University of Michigan, School of Social Work.

Harriet Amster, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Arlington; APA member.

Anne Anderson, MSW, LICSW, Co-Coordinator, Psychologists for Social Responsibility.

Craig A. Anderson, Ph.D., Professor & Chair, Department of Psychology, Iowa State University; was a founding member of the Society of Southwestern Social Psychologists and served as its President in 1986-1987. He also played an important role in the growth and development of Social Psychologists in Texas (SPIT), and was a founding member of Social Psychologists Around Missouri (SPAM; Missouri was later changed to Midwest); is currently on the Executive Council of the International Society for Research on Aggression (1997-2006); is Charter Fellow, American Psychological Society, 1988; Fellow, Division 8, Society of Personality and Social Psychology, American Psychological Association, 1990; Fellow of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 1993.

Susan M. Andersen, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, New York University. Fellow, American Psychological Association, American Psychological Society. Former Associate Editor -- Psychological Review; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology; Social Cognition; Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. Former Director of Graduate Studies in Psychology and Director of Clinical Training, NYU. Her research focuses on: the social-cognitive process of transference in interpersonal relations, a model of the relational self, and on cognitive processes in depression.

Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D. APA Member; author of In Their Own Way, Awakening Your Child's Natural Genius, The Myth of the ADD Child, and The Radiant Child.

Joshua Aronson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, New York University; author of, most recently, Improving Academic Achievement: Impact of Psychological Factors on Education, published by San Diego: Academic Press.

Marc S. Atkins, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology and Director of Psychology Training, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Jerrold Atlas, Ph.D., Associate Director, Institute for Psychohistory; several times past President, International Psychohistorical Association; Director, Center for Psychohistorical Studies; Chair, Historical Motivations Congresses in Europe; hypnotherapist in private practice; author of "Was in Deutschland Passieren Wird...das Unbewusste der Deutschen" [What Will Happen in Germany...the Unconscious of the Germans].

Judith Myers Avis, Ph.D., Professor, Couple and Family Therapy Program, Dept. of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, Canada.

Robert H. Ayasse, LCSW PPSC, Field Work Consultant/Lecturer, University of California, Berkeley School of Social Welfare; Mr. Ayasse is a social work educator specializing in work with children and families and school social work.

Bruce L. Baker, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology, UCLA. Author of Steps to Independence: Teaching Everyday Skills to Children with Special Needs.

Su Baker, M.Ed, Counsellor/Psychotherapist, John Abbott College, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, QC and private practice, Montreal, QC; Secretary/treasurer, The International Society for the Study of Dissociation (ISSD); specialization: treatment of chronic, complex post-traumatic and dissociative syndromes.

Victoria L. Banyard, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology, University of New Hampshire.

Elliott Barker, M.D., D.Psych, FRCP(C), President of the Canadian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

Sally H. Barlow, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University. Dr. Barlow is President of Division 49 - Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy which provides a forum for psychologists interested in research, teaching, and practice in group psychology and group psychotherapy. Her research areas include: infanticide, alcoholism, terrorism and violence prevention.

Marina Barnard, Ph.D., Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Drug Misuse Research, University of Glasgow, UK; Dr. Barnard is a senior researcher in the field drug misuse focussing particularly on the effects of parental drug misuse on child welfare.

Gordon A. Barr, Ph.D., Professor Of Psychology, Hunter College, CUNY; Senior Research Scientist, Developmental Psychobiology, NYS Psychiatric Institute, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons.

Stephen J. Bavolek, Ph.D.; Founder and President of Family Development Resources, Inc. and Executive Director of The Family Nurturing Center, Inc.; developed the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory and the Nurturing Parenting Programs; is recognized for his work in promoting nurturing parenting attitudes and skills for the prevention and treatment of child abuse; has conducted over 2,000 workshops, has appeared on more than 70 radio and television talk show programs and has published numerous books, articles, programs and newsletters.

Jay Belsky, Ph.D. Director, Institute for the Study of Children, Families, and Social Issues, Birkbeck University of London.

Barbara Berkman, DSW, Rehr/Fizdale Professor, Health and Mental Health, Columbia University School of Social Work.

Kathy Becker Blease, Ph.D., Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the Family Research Laboratory at University of New Hampshire; areas of specialization: child sexual abuse, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dissociation and memory, sex abuse perpetration, developmental traumatology, intergenerational transmission of abuse.

Larry W. Bennett, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Social Work, University of Illinois at Chicago; Dr. Bennett is the author of articles and book chapters on substance abuse and domestic violence, adolescent peer sexual harassment, batterers, and batterer intervention programs, and is co-author of Evaluation of services for survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault (Sage Press, 2002).

Jill Duerr Berrick, Ph.D., J.D., Co-Director, Center for Child and Youth Policy and Associate Professor School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley; author: Berrick, J.D. (1995). Faces Of Poverty: Portraits Of Women and Children On Welfare (New York, Oxford University Press, 1995); co-author: The Tender Years: Toward Developmentally-Sensitive Child Welfare Services For Very Young Children. (New York, Oxford University Press, 1998).

Marilyn A. Biggerstaff, DSW, LCSW, Professor, School of Social Work, Virginia Commonwealth University.

Susan H. Bitensky, J.D., Professor of Law, Michigan State University-DCL College of Law, author of, most recently, Spare the Rod, Embrace Our Humanity: Toward a New Legal Regime Prohibiting Corporal Punishment of Children; Section 1983: Agent of Peace or Vehicle of Violence Against Children?; and Spare the Rod, Embrace Human Rights: International Law's Mandate Against All Corporal Punishment of Children.

Nadine A Block, Executive Director of the Center for Effective Discipline, headquarters of End Corporal Punishment of Children (EPOCH-USA) and the National Coalition to Abolish Corporal Punishment in Schools (NCACPS).

Jane Bluestein, Ph.D., President, Instructional Support Services, Inc. and author of Creating Emotionally Safe Schools, 21st Century Discipline and Parents, Teens & Boundaries

Craig Boitel, Ph.D., LISW, Instructor, Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences & School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University.

Bette L. Bottoms, Ph.D., Fellow, American Psychological Association; Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago; Past-President of the American Psychological Association's Section on Child Maltreatment.

Thomas Bradbury, Ph.D.; APA member; Professor, Department of Psychology, University of California Los Angeles.

Elizabeth Barker Brandt, J.D., Alan G. Shepard Distinguished Professor of Law, University of Idaho College of Law.

T. Berry Brazelton, M.D., Clinical Professor of Pediatrics Emeritus at Harvard Medical School; Professor of Psychiatry and Human Development at Brown University. In 1995, Harvard University Medical School established the T. Berry Brazelton Chair in Pediatrics. The first incumbent is Dr. Judith Palfrey, Chief of Pediatrics at Children's Hospital. Dr. Brazelton is actively involved with The Brazelton Touchpoints (, a preventive outreach program which trains professionals nationwide to better serve families of infants and toddlers. He is also on the faculty of the Brazelton Institute ( where he continues to be involved in teaching and research with the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

Ester S. Buchholz, Professor in Applied Psychology Department, New York University; Founder and Director of Psychology of Parenthood Program; trainer of school psychologists; Co-Director of Psychoanalytic Training Institute of Child Adolescents and Family Studies (ICAFS); author of The Call of Solitude.

Patricia A. Buffler, Ph.D, M.P.H., Professor of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.

Ann Buchanan, Ph.D., Director of the Centre for Research into Parenting and Children, Reader in Applied Social Studies, Fellow of St Hilda's College, University of Oxford, UK.

David L. Burton, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of Michigan School of Social Work.

Brad J. Bushman, Ph.D.; Professor of Psychology, Iowa State University; research on the causes and consequences of human aggression and violence and author of numerous scholarly works on that subject, including "Does venting anger feed or extinguish the flame? Catharsis, rumination, distraction, anger, and aggressive responding." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 724-731.

C, D
Natasha Cabrera, Ph.D., Human Development Department, University of Maryland; general research area: father involvement and child development, child care, poverty/welfare, intersection policy and research; co-author of Beyond the Blueprint: Directions for Research for Head Start's Families.

Yvonne M. Caldera, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Human Development and Family Studies, Texas Tech University

Sandra L. Calvert, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology at Georgetown University and Director of the Children's Digital Media Center; author of, among other works, Children's journeys through the information age, (1999).

Susan B. Campbell, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology and Chair of Developmental Psychology Program, University of Pittsburgh. Author of Behavior Problems in Preschool Children: Clinical and Developmental Issues and Editor of the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

Michael P. Carey, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology and Director, Center for Health and Behavior, Syracuse University; Fellow, American Psychological Association, American Psychological Society, Society of Behavioral Medicine.

Myra Carmon, Ed.D., Associate Professor, School of Nursing, College of Health and Human Sciences, at Georgia State University; President, Georgia Nurses Association.

Alice P. Carter, Ph.D., Ed.D., Associate Professor of Psychology, Louisiana College, Pineville, LA.

Nicholas J. Certo, Ph.D., Professor & Chair, San Francisco State University Department of Special Education; Professor and Coordinator Vocational Special Education Program, San Francisco State University, Department of Special Education; 1993-1994: Acting Chairman, San Francisco State University, Department of Special Education; 1990-1992: Executive Assistant & Senior Advisor, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Washington, DC

David B. Chamberlain, Ph.D, psychologist; Life Member of APA; Charter Faculty, Santa Barbara Graduate Institute. Major contributor to the emerging field of prenatal and perinatal psychology with fifty publications including The Mind of Your Newborn Baby, now in 3rd edition, ten languages.

Richard A. Chefetz, M.D., President, International Society for the Study of Dissociation; Founding Member and Secretary, Institute of Contemporary Psychotherapy & Psychoanalysis; Distinguished Lecturer, William Alanson White Institute of Psychiatry & Psychoanalysis.

Morten H. Christiansen, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Cornell University; Director, Cognitive Neuroscience Lab at Cornell University.

Dan Christie, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Ohio State University; Chair of the Nonviolent Social Change Action Committee of Psychologists for Social Responsibility; past president of the Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict and Violence: Peace Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association; editor: Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace Psychology for the 21st Century (with Richard Wagner and Deborah Winter, Prentice-Hall, 2001).

Dante Cicchetti, Ph.D., Shirley Cox Kearns Professor of Psychology, Psychiatry, and Pediatrics, University of Minnesota; Director, Mt. Hope Family Center.

Rhonda L. Clements, Ed.D., Professor of Education at Hofstra University; President of the American Association for the Child's Right To Play; author of eight teacher textbooks on play and games for children.

Jonathan Cohen, Ph.D., ABPP, President, Center for Social and Emotional Education; Adjunct Associate Professor in Psychology and Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. Dr. Cohen founded the Teachers College Press Social Emotional Learning Book Series. He is the editor of Educating Minds and Hearts: Social Emotional Learning and the Passage into Adolescence (1999, Teachers College Press & the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development), Gaining Balance: Educating the Hearts and Minds of Young Children (forthcoming, Teachers College Press), and co-editor of The Psychoanalytic Study of Lives Over Time: Clinical and Research Studies of Children Who Return to Children in Adulthood (1999, Academic Press). He is also the author of over twenty-five journal articles and chapters about a wide range of educational, special education, developmental and psychotherapeutic issues.

Michael Lamport Commons, Ph.D., Research Associate and Lecturer, Program in Psychiatry and the Law, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Mental Health Center.

Rand Conger, Ph.D., Professor, Psychology Department; Human and Community Development; Adolescent development, Depression, Family processes; University of California, Davis.

Joanie V. Connors, Ph.D., Clinical Assistant Professor of Educational Foundations, University of Arkansas.

Kevin J. Corcoran, Ph.D., Professor, Graduate School of Social Work, Portland State University.

Alexandra F. Corning, Ph.D.; Assistant Professor, University of Notre Dame Psychology Department Faculty

William A. Corsaro, Ph.D., Robert H. Shaffer Class of 1967 Endowed Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology, Indiana University; author of The Sociology of Childhood and 'We're friends, right?': Inside Children's Cultures.

Jeralynn S. Cossman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Mississippi State University; Research Fellow/Scientist, Social Science Research Center (SSRC); Dr. Cossman works within the Rural Health, Safety and Security Institute of the SSRC examining issues related to health assessment, prevention and social epidemiology.

Erminio Costa, M.D., Scientific Director of the Psychiatric Institute, College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Victoria Cotrell, Ph.D., Social Work Faculty, Graduate School of Social Work, Portland State University

Mark E. Courtney, Ph.D., Director, Chapin Hall Center for Children, University of Chicago.

Laurie A. Couture, LMHC, M.Ed., Mental Health Counselor, social worker specializing in behaviorally challenged and traumatized children and adolescents, Exeter, NH.

Eric Cowan, Psy.D., Assistant Professor, School of Psychology, James Madison Universtiy.

Carroll Ann Cradock, Ph.D., APA Member; Director, Behavioral Health Services, Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center and Advocate Bethany Hospital; Associate Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Adele Crudden, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Program Director of Social Work, Mississippi State University.

Karen D'Avanzo, Ph.D. Associate Research Scientist, Yale University School of Medicine and Visiting Fellow at Yale Child Study Center, New Haven, CT; Assistant Clinical Professor, The New School University, Graduate Faculty, Psychology Dept., New York.

Douglas Davies, Ph.D., Clinical/Practice Associate Professor School of Social Work, The University of Michigan; author: Child Development: A Practitioner's Guide.

Jessica Hoffmann Davis, Ed.D., Patricia Bauman and John Landrum Bryant Senior Lecturer on the Arts in Education; Director, Arts in Education Program, Harvard Graduate School of Education.

Richard L. Davis, author of Domestic Violence: Facts and Fallacies, Praeger Publishers, Westport CT (1998), retired after 21 years of service with the Brockton, Massachusetts Police Department, he is a Domestic Violence Intervention and Programs consultant.

Edward L. Deci, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, University of Rochester.

Paul F. Dell, Ph.D., ABPP; Director, The International Society for the Study of Dissociation (ISSD); Clinical Director, Trauma Recovery Center, Norfolk, VA.

Lloyd deMause, Director, The Institute for Psychohistory; Editor, The Journal of Psychohistory; published over 80 scholarly articles; his books include The History of Childhood, A Bibliography of Psychohistory, The New Psychohistory, Jimmy Carter and American Fantasy, Foundations of Psychohistory, Reagan’s America and The Emotional Life of Nations (forthcoming). His work has been translated into nine languages.

Ellen R. DeVoe, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Social Work, Columbia University; interests: the impact of domestic violence on children, trauma in young children, intervention with children and families exposed to family and community violence, social work practice, child welfare.

Martha Dewees, Ph.D., LICSW, Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, University of Vermont.

Carla DiScala, Ph.D., is a Research Assistant Professor at Tufts University Medical School, and is the principal investigator of the Research and Training Center in Rehabilitation and Childhood Trauma (RTC) as well as the managing director of the National Pediatric Trauma Registry (NPTR). She has been instrumental in developing and operating the NPTR as a high quality data bank and a resource to the NPTR's coinvestigators, participating facilities, national organizations, and other research groups. She works closely with experts in pediatric acute care management, rehabilitation, and injury control. She has authored or co-authored many articles and presentations on childhood injury and its outcomes.

Tyan Parker Dominguez, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Denis M. Donovan, M.D., M.Ed., F.A.P.S.; child and adolescent psychiatrist; Director of the Children's Center for Developmental Psychiatry, St. Petersburg, Florida; co-developer with Deborah McIntyre of the Developmental-Contextual Approach to child trauma therapy and author of Healing the Hurt Child: A Developmental-Contextual Approach and What Did I Just Say!?!, a book designed to empower parents and professionals who work with children without the need for coercion or punishment.

Clive Dorman, Director and Co-founder of The Children's Project, Ltd., UK.

Helen Dorman, Director and Co-founder of The Children's Project, Ltd., UK.

Emily M. Douglas, Ph.D., Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.

Dennis Drotar, Ph.D.; Professor of Psychology, Case Western Reserve University.

Leonard J. Duhl, M.D., Professor of Public Health and Urban Policy, Professor of Psychiatry at University of California Berkeley; author: The Social Entrepreneurship of Change.

Michael Durfee, MD, Assistant Clinical Profession University of Southern California, School of Medicine in Child Psychiatry and Pediatrics. Director Child Abuse Prevention Program, LA County Department of Health Services and Consultant ICAN National Center of Child Fatality Review. Dr. Durfee has consulted internationally and on site in over half of the US States. This consultation led to the development of national directories by state, association, federal agency and international contacts. He also developed a unique multiagency, child death data base matching system that is in place in California and anticipated as a national system. He has formally published in the medical literature on child death, sexual abuse of the young, and HIV in child sexual abuse. Most of his work is published informally addressing public health models for prevention/intervention, issues of pregnancy and children 0-3, child death and grief and mourning in child survivors of fatal/severe family violence.

Joan E. Durrant, Ph.D., Child-Clinical Psychologist; Head, Department of Family Studies, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Kevin P. Dwyer, MA, NCSP. Senior Associate, American Institutes for Research, President, National Association of School Psychologists (99-00), Profession's Lifetime Achievement Awardee, Tipper Gore Remember the Children Awardee. Principal Investigator: Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools and Safeguarding our Children: An Action Guide, USDOE.

Preston M. Dyer, Ph.D., LMSW-ACP, Professor of Social Work and Sociology, Baylor University School of Social Work; Dr. Dyer is the founding chair of the Baylor University School of Social Work (1998-2001), licensed as a clinical social worker and as marriage and family therapist, a certified family life educator, and has taught marriage and family for 35 years.

E, F
Cynthia East, Faculty member, Department of Social Work, College of Health and Human Sciences, Georgia State University.

Ann Easterbrooks, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development, Tufts University; Co-Editor, Volume 6. Developmental Psychology, Handbook of Psychology (2002).

Jeffrey L. Edleson, Ph.D., Professor, University of Minnesota School of Social Work; Director of the Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse ( Dr. Edleson has published over 80 articles and six books on domestic violence, groupwork, and program evaluation; has conducted intervention research and provided technical assistance to domestic violence programs and research projects across North America as well as in several other countries including Germany, Australia, Israel, Cyprus, Korea, and Singapore; past member of the National Research Council's Panel on Research on Violence Against Women, and is currently a consultant to the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Edleson is an Associate Editor of the journal Violence Against Women and has served on the editorial boards of numerous journals. He is Co-Editor of the Sage Book Series on Violence Against Women. His own books include Working with Children and Adolescents in Groups, co-authored with Sheldon D. Rose (1987, Jossey-Bass), Intervention for Men who Batter: An Ecological Approach, co-authored with Richard M. Tolman (1992, Sage Publications), Ending the Cycle of Violence: Community Responses to Children of Battered Women, co-edited with Einat Peled and Peter G. Jaffe (1995, Sage Publications), Future Interventions with Battered Women and Their Families, co-edited with Zvi Eisikovits (1996, Sage Publications), Evaluating Domestic Violence Programs (1997, Domestic Abuse Project), and Effective Intervention in Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment Cases: Guidelines for Policy and Practice (1999, co-authored with Susan Schechter, National Council of Juvenile & Family Court Judges). His most recent books are entitled The Sourcebook on Violence Against Women (2001, co-edited with Claire Renzetti and Raquel Kennedy Bergen, Sage Publications) and Domestic Violence in the Lives of Children: The Future of Research, Intervention, and Social Policy (2001, co-edited with Sandra Graham-Bermann, American Psychological Association Books).

Julie Olsen Edwards, Director, Department of Early Childhood and Family Life Education, Cabrillo Community College, Aptos, California.

Leonard P. Edwards, Judge, Santa Clara County Superior Court, California; author of "CORPORAL PUNISHMENT AND THE LEGAL SYSTEM," Santa Clara Law Review, School of Law, Santa Clara University, 1996.

Byron Egeland, Ph.D., Irving B. Harris Professor of Child Development, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota.

Nancy Eisenberg, Ph.D., Regents' Professor of Psychology, Arizona State University Department of Psychology.

Riane Eisler, JD, author best known for her international bestseller The Chalice and The Blade: Our History, Our Future (Harper & Row 1987), which has been translated into 18 languages including Chinese, Spanish, Russian, and Japanese and was the first book reporting the results of her multidisciplinary study of human culture spanning 30,000 years. Dr. Eisler's other books include Sacred Pleasure (Harper Collins 1995) Tomorrow’s Children (Westview Press 2000), and The Power of Partnership (New World Library 2002), as well as Dissolution (McGraw Hill 1977), and The Equal Rights Handbook (Avon 1978). She is senior author of The Partnership Way and Women, Men, and the Global Quality of Life (based on a study of statistical data from 89 nations examining the correlation of the status of women and the general quality of a nation’s life). She is also the author of over 100 essays and articles for publications ranging from Brain and Mind, Behavioral Science, Futures, and Political Psychology to The UNESCO Courier, The International Journal of Women's Studies, the Human Rights Quarterly, and the World Encyclopedia of Peace; president of the Center for Partnership Studies.

Elaine El-Askari, MPH, Labor Occupational Health Program, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.

David Elkind, Ph.D., Professor and Department Chair, Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development, Tufts University; President Emeritus, National Association for the Education of Young Children; Dr. Elkind is the author of many books, including: The Hurried Child (1981/1988/2001), Reinventing Childhood (1998), All Grown Up and No Place to Go (1998), Ties That Stress: The New Family Imbalance (1994) and Miseducation (1987).

Patricia C. Ellerson, Ph.D., Post-doctoral Fellow, Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.

Gregory C. Elliott, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Brown University.

Nina Engleman, Executive Director, Partners In Health, Inc.

Drew Erhardt, Ph.D. (APA Member), Associate Professor, Graduate School of Education & Psychology, Pepperdine University.

Beverley Cush Evans, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Special Education, Department of Counseling, Psychology and Special Education, Duquesne University. Dr. Evans' principal areas of involvement concern the education of children with developmental disabilities and behavior disorders.

John Fahey, Ed.D., Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership, James Madison University School of Education.

James A. H. Farrow, M.D., FSAM, Professor, Medicine & Pediatrics, Director, Student Health Services Tulane University.

Robert Fathman, Ph.D., clinical psychologist; Co-chair of EPOCH-USA; Executive Director, Center for Effective Discipline; Chairman, National Coalition to Abolish Corporal Punishment in Schools.

Gordon Fellman, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology and Chair, Peace and Conflict Studies Program, Brandeis University; author of Rambo and the Dalai Lama: The Compulsion to Win and Its Threat to Human Survival (Albany: SUNY Press), 1998.

Norma D. Feshbach, Ph.D.; Professor Emerita Psychological Studies in Education, UCLA; formerly Chair of the Department of Education at UCLA and Dean of the School of Education at UCLA ; Chair, APA task force on Rights of Children and Youth, early 80's; pioneered research in the nature of empathy; co-author of Early Schooling in England and Israel.

Charles R. Figley, Ph.D., Professor & Director, Florida State University Traumatology Institute; has been an APA Fellow since 1982 and a Fellow or Member of seven other learned societies; was founding member of APA Division 43 (Family Psychology); former director of the Interdivisional Ph.D. Program in Marriage and Family; founder and current editor of Traumatology, the International Journal; founder and current editor of three scholarly book series in the area of stress and trauma; founding editor of the Journal of Traumatic Stress; Founding President of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies; published 18 books, 83 refereed journal articles, and numerous other publications of relevance to family relations, stress, and violence.

Connie Flanagan, Ph.D., Professor - Youth Civic Development, Agricultural and Extension Education, Comparative and International Education, Human Development and Family Studies, Women's Studies at Pennsylvania State University.

Paul Fleiss, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.A.P., pediatrician; author, most recently of Sweet Dreams -- A pediatrician's secrets for your child's good night's sleep.

Jerry Floersch, Ph.D., LISW, Assistant Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences.

Eirini Flouri, Ph.D., Research Fellow, Deputy Director of Centre for Research into Parenting and Children; Lecturer in Statistics, St Hilda's College, Dept. of Social Policy and Social Work, University of Oxford, UK

Rev. Dr. Marie M. Fortune, Founder and Senior Analyst, The Center for the Prevention of Sexual and Domestic Violence, Seattle; author of Keeping The Faith: Questions and Answers for the Abused Woman.

Isabelle Fox, Ph.D., Associate of Western Psychological Center, Encino, California; Board Member of Attachment Parenting International; Associate of the Bowlby Study Group; author of Being There: The Benefits of a Stay-at-Home Parent; Senior Mental Health Consultant for Operation Head Start.(1965-75); clinical psychotherapist specializing in child development for over 30 years.

David W. Foy, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Graduate School of Education & Psychology, Pepperdine University.

Jennifer J. Freyd, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon; author: Betrayal Trauma: The Logic of Forgetting Childhood Abuse, published by Harvard University Press (1996).

G, H
Lynn Galle, Director, Shirley G. Moore Laboratory School, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota.

Eileen Gambrill, Ph.D., Professor of Social Welfare at the University of California at Berkeley. She is the author of many articles and chapters in professional sources. Recent books include Critical Thinking in Clinical Practice, Critical Thinking for Social Workers: A Workbook (with Len Gibbs), Controversial Issues in Values, Ethics and Obligations (with Robert Pruger), and Controversial Issues in Child Welfare (with T.J. Stein).

James Garbarino, Ph.D., Professor of Human Development, co-director of Family Life Development Center at the College of Human Ecology, Cornell University; publications include: (with Kostelny, K.) (In press) The impact of the Intifada on behavioral problems of Palestinian children, Raising Children in a Socially Toxic Environment (1995), Children and Families in the Social Environment (second edition, 1992) and (with Dubrow, N., Kostelny, K., and Pardo, C.) Children in danger: coping with the consequences of community violence (1992).

Frances Gardner, Dr., University Lecturer in Applied Social Studies & Honorary Clinical Psychologist, Department of Social Policy and Social Work at University of Oxford, UK.

Moises Gaviria, M.D., Professor of Psychiatry, Director of the Neuropsychiatric Division Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Robert Geffner, Ph.D., ABPN, President/Founder of Family Violence & Sexual Assault Institute; Clinical Research Professor of Psychology, California School of Professional Psychology, Alliant International University; Diplomate Clinical Neuropsychology; co-editor of Violence and Sexual Abuse at Home (1997). Dr. Geffner is also Chair Elect of the Divisions for Social Justice in APA.

Kelly Patrick Gerling, Ph.D., organizational psychologist; member of the Kansas Psychological Association; co-author of NLP: The New Technology of Achievement.

Elizabeth Thompson Gershoff, Ph.D.; APA Member; Associate Research Scientist, National Center for Children in Poverty, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University.

David G. Gil, D.S.W., Professor of Social Policy and director of the Center for Social Change, Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University; Dr. Gil's writings include Violence Against Children, Unraveling Social Policy, The Challenge of Social Equality, Beyond the Jungle, Confronting Injustice and Oppression, Child Abuse and Violence (editor), Toward Social and Economic Justice, and The Future of Work (coeditor).

Marti Glenn, Ph.D., Santa Barbara Graduate Institute, MA and Ph.D. Programs in Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology, Somatic Psychology

Lisa E. Goehler, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology and Graduate Neuroscience Program, University of Virginia

Sidney M. Goetz, President, Thomas Jefferson Society.

Steven N. Gold, Ph.D., Professor, Center for Psychological Studies, Director, Trauma Resolution & Integration Program, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL; Co-editor, Journal of Trauma Practice; author, Not Trauma Alone: Therapy for Survivors of Child Abuse in Family and Social Context; APA Division 30 Liaison to the APA Trauma Interest Group; President-elect, The International Society for the Study of Dissociation.

Wendy A. Goldberg, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California, Irvine, co-editor of The Transition to Parenthood: Current Theory and Research.

Edward Goldson, M.D., Professor, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center; clinical interests: developmental disorders, chronic illness, child maltreatment, high risk newborn care and follow up, follow up general pediatrics.

Bruce Gómez, M.S.W., L.C.S.W., Psychotherapist, Home Intervention Specialist, Clinical Case Coordinator - Psychealth, Ltd.

Evaristo Gómez, M.D. Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Ambassador of Psychiatry for Spain and Latin America, University of Illinois at Chicago, Life Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association.

Madeleine Gómez, M.D. Clinical Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, Former Medical Director, Ravenswood Hospital Community Mental Health Center.

Madeleine Y. Gómez, Ph.D.; APA Member; President of PsychHeath, Ltd., Assistant Clinical Professor, Northwestern University Medical School; Clinical Supervisor, Hartgrove Hospital; Adjunct Visiting Professor, Roosevelt University; Consultant, Zurich Corporation.

Tomi Gomory, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Florida State University School of Social Work.

John I. Goodlad, Ph.D., President, Institute for Educational Inquiry and a founder of the Center for Educational Renewal at the University of Washington. He held professorships at Agnes Scott College and Emory University in Georgia, the University of Chicago, and UCLA (where he was dean of the Graduate School of Education from 1967 to 1983) before coming to the University of Washington in 1984. Goodlad is the author of over thirty books on education, including the highly acclaimed A Place Called School (McGraw-Hill, 1984), Teachers for Our Nation's Schools (Jossey-Bass, 1990), and In Praise of Education (Teachers College Press, 1997). Dr. Goodlad has received numerous national awards in recognition of his work, including the prestigious Harold T. McGraw Prize in Education in 1999. He holds honorary doctorates from nineteen colleges and universities in the United States and Canada.

Marilyn E. Gootman, Ed.D., Gootman Education Associates; author of The Loving Parents' Guide to Discipline and The Caring Teacher's Guide to Discipline.

Deborah Gorman-Smith, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Institute for Juvenile Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Anthony M. Graziano, Ph. D. Professor Emeritus, Psychology, S.U.N.Y. at Buffalo.

Thomas Greening, Ph.D., Editor, Journal of Humanistic Psychology.

Philip Greven, Jr., Ph.D., Professor II Emeritus, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.; author of The Protestant Temperament: Patterns of Child-Rearing, Religious Experience, and the Self in Early America and Spare the Child: The Religious Roots of Punishment and the Psychological Impact of Physical Abuse; a co-founder of EPOCH-USA (End Physical Punishment of Children), headquartered at the Center for Effective Discipline, Columbus, Ohio (

Robin Grille, BA(psych) Grad. Dip. Counselling, Dip. Interactive Psychotherapy; Psychologist in private practice, Sydney Australia, specialising in relationship counselling; author of numerous articles about parenting and child development for Sydney's Child and Melbourne's Child magazines.

Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of Michigan School of Social Work.

Wendy S. Grolnick, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology, Frances L. Hiatt School of Psychology, Clark University; author of The Psychology of Parental Control: How Well-Meant Parenting Backfires, published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Victor Groza, Ph.D., LISW, Professor, Chair, Doctoral Program, Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University.

Stephen H. Guerin, Psy.D., Licensed Clinical Psychologist in Private Practice; Adjunct Faculty in Psychology, Motlow State Community College, Fayetteville, TN.

Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Ph.D., ACSW, Assistant Professor of Social Work & Population and Family Health, Columbia University.

Megan R. Gunnar, Ph.D., Distinguished McKnight University Professor, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota. Dr. Gunnar is known for her work on the regulation of stress physiology in young children, particularly the critical importance of children's relationships with supportive and trusted adults in the maintenance of basal levels of stress hormones.

David Gutmann, Ph.D. Emeritus professor of Psychiatry, Northwestern University Medical School.

Adrienne Ahlgren Haeuser, Professor Emerita, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Co-Founder, EPOCH-USA.

Mitch Hall, M.A., teaching faculty, Goddard College, Health Arts and Sciences Program; author of The Plague of Violence -- A preventable epidemic.

Sherry L. Hamby, Ph.D., Research Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Director, Possible Equalities; co-author of the forthcoming Conflict Tactics Scales Handbook and numerous other articles on family violence.

Valentina Hardin, Ed.D., Research Assistant Professor, Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics, University of Houston.

Sandra Lee Harris, Ph.D.; Professor of Clinical Psychology at Rutgers' Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology and a professor in the department of psychology in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences–New Brunswick. An expert in the field of autism and children, she has earned international recognition for her pioneering work; named Distinguished Service Professor by Rutgers Board of Governors (Dec. 2002). For more than 30 years, Harris' research and clinical interests have focused on children with autism and their families. In 1972, she founded the Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center (DDDC)

Albert A. Harrison, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology and Director, Internship and Career Center, University of California, Davis.

William R. Higa, Ph.D.; APA Member (since 1977); Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Hilo; psychologist, licensed Hawaii (clinical psychology training); former consultant, Head Start Program, Big Island of Hawaii.

Melissa Holt, Ph.D, Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.

William R. Holt, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth.

Thomas C. Hood, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology; Executive Officer, Society for the Study of Social Problems, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Scott J. Hunter, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Pediatric Neuropsychology, University of Chicago; Member, APA.

Irwin A. Hyman, Ed.D., ABPP (Clinical & School, Psychology) FAPA, FAASP. Professor of School Psychology & Director, National Center for the Study of Corporal Punishment and Alternatives, Temple University. Twenty-five years of practice, scholarship and research on corporal punishment and alternatives.

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Jeffrey Idelson, M.F.T., Psychology Instructor, Diably Valley College, Pleasant Hill, California; in private practice for 22 years.

Helene Jackson, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Social Work, Columbia University School of Social Work. Dr. Jackson's areas of involvement include: Child and adolescent mental health; Social work practice in child abuse, neglect and family violence; Rape; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Preadolescent suicide; Domestic violence. She has been in private practice with children, adolescents, and adults for twenty-three years and has over twenty years of experience in the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with special expertise in sexual abuse and family violence. At the Children's Hospital Family Violence and Sexual Abuse Teams in Boston, MA, she conducted evaluation and treatment of children and adolescents suspected of being physically and/or sexually abused and their families. She has authored numerous scholarly papers on the aforementioned topics.

Tom Jambor, Ed.D.; Professor Emeritus, Child Development & Education, University of Alabama at Birmingham; Associate Scientist with the Injury Control Research Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham; directs "Children in a Changing Society" Website sponsored by the University of Alabama in Birmingham's School of Education.

Diederik F. Janssen, M.D., author of Growing Up Sexually (2002), a large anthropological study that examines childhood sexuality and scripting of sexual development. Included is a world reference atlas and an ethnographic index. . The Netherlands.

Mark J. Johns, LCPC, CADC; APA Member; Clinical Director, PsycHealth, Ltd.; Adjunct Faculty, Illinois School of Professional Psychology.

Charles Felzen Johnson, M.D., Professor of Pediatrics at The Ohio State University Child Abuse Program at Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.

Kenneth Johnson, Ph.D., Professor of Neuroscience and Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University; Director, Krieger Mind/Brain Institute.

Lisa M. Jones, Ph.D., Research Assistant Professor of Psychology, Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire.

Rosanna Jones-Thurman, Ph.D.; Dr. Jones-Thurman is in private practice at Psychological Services in Omaha, Nebraska where she specializes in child/family issues and multiculturalism. She received the 1996 Jeffrey S. Tanaka, Ph.D. honorable mention award for her dissertation "A Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Race on the Discipline Judgments of Black, White and Biracial Male Children" form the APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs.

Stephen R. Jorgensen, Dean of the College of Human Environmental Sciences, University of Missouri - Columbia; Dr. Jorgensen served as President of the National Council on Family Relations (1999-2001).

Ernest Jouriles, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Houston.

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Joseph Kahne, Ph.D., Professor of Education, Mills College, Oakland, California.

Bertram P. Karon, Ph.D.; Professor, Department of Psychology, Michigan State University; On November 16, 2002, at the annual meeting of The United States Chapter of the International Society for the Psychological Treatment of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses Dr. Karon was honored for his "profound contributions to the psychoanalytic understanding and humane treatment of patients with severe mental illness;" published work spans over 40 years.

Tim Kasser, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Psychology, Knox College; author of The High Price of Materialism, MIT Press 2002; author of numerous articles on values.

Anthony Kelly, Senior Lecturer , School of Social Work and Social Policy, University of Queensland, Australia.

Stephen A. Kent, Ph.D., Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Canada. Research: New Religions, Deviance, Social Movements, 'Cults.' Professor Kent researches new and alternative religions, often combining perspectives from sociology with religious studies. Most recently, he has examined controversies surrounding how researchers study these groups, and he himself has published on Scientology, the Children of God/The Family, and newer faiths operating in Canada and elsewhere. Author of From Slogans to Mantras (2001).

Paul Kimmel, Ph D., Adjunct Professor Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center; Past President, Division of Peace Psychology.

Aaron Kipnis, Ph.D., psychotherapist and counselor; president of The Fatherhood Coalition; co-directs (with Liz Herron) the Gender Relations Institute; core faculty member of Pacifica Graduate Institute; author of Angry Young Men -- How Parents, Teachers, and Counselors can Help "Bad Boys" become Good Men and Knights Without Armor.

Tovah P. Klein, Ph.D., Director, Barnard Center for Toddler Development, Barnard College, New York.

C. Raymond Knee, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Houston.

Michelle Kobayashi, Founder, Moms' Friendship Circle, Los Angeles.

Nathan Kogan, Ph.D, Professor of Psychology, Graduate Faculty, New School University, New York.

Michael Kohn, M.D., Clinical Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney University Staff Specialist Paediatrician, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney Australia.

James Kopp, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology, Deprtment of Psychology, University of Texas at Arlington.

Stanley Krippner, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Saybrook Graduate School, San Francisco; Co-editor, The Psychological Impact of War Trauma on Civilians; recipient, American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology (2002); The American Psychological Association Division 30 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Professional Hypnosis (2002); The Ashley Montagu Peace Prize (2003).

Linda R. Kroll, Ph.D., Professor of Education Mills College; Dr. Kroll's research focuses on both literacy learning in young children and teacher development and education. Her current research includes a study of bilingual children's writing and development, a collaborative study of teacher development (with a classroom teacher), and a study of teacher development in the Mills teacher education program.

Santosh Kulkarni, Social Worker working with children, Maharashtra State, India.

John A. Lambie, Ph.D. Senior Lecturer in Psychology, APU Cambridge, UK.

Melissa Lavitt, Ph.D., Chair, Dept. of Social Work, College of Human Services, Arizona State University West.

Penelope Leach, Ph.D. Research psychologist; Fellow, British Psychological Society; founder member EPOCH-UK. Dr. Leach is best known as the author of Your Baby and Child and is a passionate advocate for children and parents. She is a psychologist, specialising in child development and currently co-director of a large-scale study of the effects of different kinds of care -- by mothers, fathers, childminders, nannies, grandmothers, nurseries -- and combinations of kinds of care, on children's development in the first five years. Penelope has a psychology Ph.D. and an Honorary Doctorate in Education. She is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, and an Honorary Senior Research Fellow in the Leopold Muller University Department of Child and Family Mental Health at the Royal Free and University College Hospital Medical School. Her acclaimed book Your Baby and Child has sold over 3 million copies in twenty-nine languages and was awarded first prize in the 'popular medicine' category of its book awards by the British Medical Association.

Norm Lee, M.Ed., M.A.; educator; author of numerous books and articles on education and parenting including Paperbacks for High School, Parenting Without Punishing, Principles of Painless Parenting.

Kim Leon, Ph.D., Assistant Professor and State Extension Specialist, Human Development and Family Studies, University of Missouri.

Dr. Alan M. Leslie, Professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science, Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University; researches the nature of cognitive architecture in early development, including, object cognition in infancy and the cognitive neuropsychology of "theory of mind" concepts; directs the Cognitive Development Laboratory.

David A. Levitsky, Ph.D., Stephen H. Weiss Presidential Fellow, Professor of Nutrition and Psychology, Cornell University

Michael Lewis, Ph.D.; University Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics & Psychiatry; Director of the Institute for the Study of Child Development at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; author of Shame, The Exposed Self, the first to explore the development of the self-conscious emotions, especially shame and relate it to children's maltreatment and abuse, and, most recently, Altering Fate: Why the past does not predict the future, which attempts to show how development is malleable and that early experiences neither doom us if they are bad nor save us if they are good.

Jean Liedloff, Author of The Continuum Concept.

Georg Lind, Ph.D.; Professor of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Germany; author of Can morality be taught?, (Berlin: Logos Publisher) and Morality can be taught (Muenchen: Oldenbourg Publisher); Director of the joint computer laboratories for teaching at the University of Konstanz (1987- 2001); Associated member of the Department of Psychology (1993- ); Visiting professor for education and educational measurement at Humboldt University Berlin (1993/94), University of Illinois at Chicago (1995/96), University of Konstanz (1997/98) and University of Monterrey, Mexico (1999); Researcher at the Special Research Unit "Educational Research" (Sonderforschungsbereich 23, Bildungsforschung), University of Konstanz (1973-86).

Lewis P. Lipsitt, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Psychology, Medical Science, and Human Development, and Research Professor of Psychology, Brown University; Prof. Lipsitt has been a Guggenheim Fellow, and a Fellow of London's Tavistock Institute of Human Relations. At Stanford University's Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in 1979-80, he held a James McKeen Cattell Fellowship. He was honored with the Nicholas Hobbs Award for "science in the service of children" in 1990 by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division of Child, Youth, and Family Services. He also won the 1994 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Lifetime Achievement Mentor Award for his work with minority persons and women in the pursuit of scientific careers. He has been president of the Brown University chapter of the Society of the Sigma Xi, and is a Fellow of the American Psychological Society (APS), for which he served as a founding member of the executive board. In 1995 Dr. Lipsitt received a Professional Achievement Award from his undergraduate alma mater, the University of Chicago. The founding director of Brown University's Child Study Center from 1967 to 1991, Dr. Lipsitt was a visiting scientist at the National Institute of Mental Health in 1986-87, studying psychopathological risk-taking, from which work he co-edited a volume entitled Self-Regulatory Behavior and Risk Taking. He has authored many articles on infant learning and perception, perinatal risk, crib death, effects of early experience on later development and behavior, adolescent suicide, and various conditions threatening young people's lives.

Madhu Lodha, Instructor, Introduction to Curriculum for The Young Child, Department of Early Childhood Education, Cabrillo College, Aptos, California.

Lucien X. Lombardo, Ph.D., Author, Professor, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Old Dominion University.

Dennis Lowe, Ph.D., Director, Center for the Family at Pepperdine University; Professor of Psychology at Pepperdine; Director of Graduate Program to train Marriage & Family Therapists; Licensed Psychologist; Licensed Family Therapist. Dr. Dennis Lowe, together with his wife, Dr. Emily Scott-Lowe (also a signatory of this letter), has conducted countless seminars enriching marriages and families throughout the United States and in Europe.

Paula Lundberg-Love, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Tyler; co-editor of Violence and Sexual Abuse at Home (1997).

Rodney Luster, Ph.D., Professor, Sociology Department, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas; author of The Dichotomized Self-Reactions to Trauma.

John S. Lyons, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Medicine and Preventive Medicine at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and the Director of the Mental Health Services and Policy Program.

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Lisa Machoian, Ed.D., Director of Gender Studies Program, Lecturer on Education, Human Development and Psychology, Harvard University Graduate School of Education.

Harriet L. MacMillan, M.D., M.Sc., F.R.C.P.(C), Associate Professor, Canadian Centre for Studies of Children at Risk, McMaster University and Director, Child Advocacy and Assessment Program, McMaster Children’s Hospital, Canada.

Sandra Magaña, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Social Work, University of Wisconsin - Madison; co-author of The Experiences of African American Families Coping with Mental Illness.

Mike A. Males, Ph.D., Sociology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz; senior researcher, Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, San Francisco; author of The Scapegoat Generation: America's War on Adolescents (1996).

Michael J. Marshall, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, West Liberty State College; clinical psychologist; author of Why Spanking Doesn't Work.

Tomas E. Martinez, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Pepperdine University Social Science. Dr. Martinez is a Cross-Cultural Psychologist involved with training practitioners in the cultural perspectives of child abuse and family violence. As a Commissioner for the California Youth Authority, he is especially concerned about the potential for the use of corporal punishment with juveniles who are incarcerated.

Carol Rippey Massat, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Jane Addams College of Social Work, University of Illinois at Chicago.

James H. Mathisen, Psy.D., Clinical Psychologist; Dr. Mathisen is a psychologist licensed in the State of Nebraska where he has been practicing with Psychological Services, Omaha, since 1999. His practice includes conducting court ordered evaluations for juveniles, adults, and child custody cases. He is also contracted for psychological services at the Douglas County Youth Center where he provides crisis intervention services for youth.

Mark Mattaini, DSW, ACSW, Associate Professor and Director, PhD in Social Work Program, Jane Addams College of Social Work, University of Illinois at Chicago; author of /PEACE POWER for Adolescents /(and author/editor of 7 other books); Chair, Behaviorists for Social Responsibility; Editor of the Journal /Behavior and Social Issues.

Nicholas Mazza, Ph.D., Professor of Social Work, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. Licensed Clinical Social Worker, Psychologist, and Marriage and Family Therapist.

Kathleen McCartney, Ph.D., is a member of APA as well as a Professor in Human Development and Psychology at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

Jacquelyn McCroskey, DSW, John Milner Associate Professor of Child Welfare, University of Southern California School of Social Work.

Neil McKeganey, Ph.D., Professor of Drug Misuse Research, University of Glasgow; Founding Director of the Centre for Drug Misuse Research within the University of Glasgow and has directed the research programme of the Centre since 1994; is a member of the Greater Glasgow Drug Action Team and has acted as an advisor to the UK Home Office, the World Health Organisation and the United States Department of Justice; most recent book, co-authored with Professor James McIntosh, is Beating the Dragon: the recovery from dependent drug use (Prentice Hall).

David J. McKirnan, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology, The University of Illinois at Chicago; Principle Research Investigator, Howard Brown Health Center, Chicago.

Mary Benson McMullen, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Early Childhood Education, Indiana University-Bloomington.

Maryam Mehran, Ed.D., Assistant Professor, Dept. of Psychology, Chapman University.

Samuel J. Meisels, Ed.D., President Erikson Institute, Chicago. Dr. Meisels is the nation's leading authority on the assessment of young children. He has published over 150 articles, books, and monographs and is the co-author of The Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention (Cambridge University Press, 2000). Before coming to Erikson, Meisels was a professor of education and a research scientist at the University of Michigan for 21 years; he is now an emeritus professor there. He has been a preschool, kindergarten, and first grade teacher and has held positions at Tufts University, where he served as director of the Eliot-Pearson Children's School and associate professor of child study, and Boston Children's Hospital. Meisels is president of Zero to Three's board of directors and an adviser to the Head Start Bureau and the National Governors Association. His research focuses on the development of alternative assessment strategies in infancy, early childhood, and the elementary years; the impact of standardized tests on young children; and developmental consequences of high-risk birth.

Philip Mendes, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Faculty of Medicine, Monash University, Australia.

Charles Merrill, Ed.D., Professor of Psychology Department, Sonoma State University; APA Member.

Stanley B. Messer, Ph.D.; Professor and Dean, Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; published numerous articles in scientific journals; was an associate editor American Psychologist and is on the editorial board of several other journals; maintains a clinical practice in Highland Park, New Jersey.

Michael A. Milburn, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology, University of Massachusetts/Boston. Author (with Dr. Sheree Conrad) of The Politics of Denial (1996, MIT Press) and Sexual Intelligence (2001, Crown). Our research shows a link between experiences of harsh punishment in childhood and support in adulthood for punitive public policies such as the death penalty and the use of military force.

T. R. Miles, Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Wales, Bangor, UK; Professor Miles, a pioneer in the study of dyslexia, is the author and editor of many books on dyslexia and has contributed many papers on the subject to learned journals. He comments,"I believe corporal punishment is degrading for any child, and for dyslexic children, already low in self-esteem, it is particularly demoralising. Good luck with the letter - I would have thought that world-wide the signatories should run to thousands rather than hundreds."

Alice Miller, Author of ten books on the roots of violence in childhood, including: The Drama of the Gifted Child, Banished Knowledge, Breaking Down the Wall of Silence, Thou Shalt Not Be Aware, For Your Own Good and The Truth Will Set You Free.

Nancy B. Miller, Ph.D., Executive Officer, Sociologists for Women in Society (SWS); Visiting Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Akron.

Patrice M. Miller, Ed.D., Associate Professor Psychology, Salem State College, Salem, MA; Research Associate, Program in Psychiatry and the Law, Harvard Medical School.

Marilyn Fayre Milos, R.N.; Diplomate, American Board of Sexology; Director of the National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers (NOCIRC) in 1985; awarded the NurseWeek Magazine award for excellence in nursing in recognition of her advocacy work in the field of non-therapeutic child circumcision, May 11, 2001.

Gail Monroe, Ph.D., APA Member, Martinez, California.

Julie R. Morales, M.A., NSF Minority Graduate Research Fellow, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota.

Claudia L. Moreno, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Columbia School of Social Work.

Douglas H. Morrison, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Medical School.

Vera E. Mouradian, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Stone Center, Wellesley Centers for Women, Wellesley College.

Carol T. Mowbray, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology, College of Literature Science and the Arts; Professor, School of Social Work; Director, Center for Research on Poverty, Risk and Mental Health, The University of Michigan.

Peter Mundy, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Director, Child Division and the Center for Autism and Related Disabilities, University of Miami.

Hector F. Myers, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, UCLA and Director, Research Center on Ethnicity, Health & Behavior, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine & Science.

Michael Myers, M.S., LMHP, CPC, Affiliation: N.C.C.

Thomas Natsoulas, Ph.D., Research Professor, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis.

Thomas A. Nazario, JD, Professor of Law, University of San Francisco; Author of In Defense of Children.

Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, Ph.D., MSW, CSW, CCH, CRT, executive director of Genesis Consultants, Inc.( and referral service, South Orange, NJ; author of If I'd Only Known...Sexual Abuse in or out of the Family: A Guide to Prevention. Dr. Neddermeyer specializes in sexual and physical abuse recovery and prevention.

Charles A. Nelson, Ph.D., Distinguished McKnight University Professor of Child Psychology, Neuroscience and Pediatrics; Nancy M. and John E. Lindahl Professor for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, University of Minnesota Institute of Child Development.

Dan Neuharth, Ph.D., MFT; Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, Greenbrae, California.

Eli H. Newberger, M.D., Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Lecturer on Maternal and Child Health, Harvard School of Public Health; Senior Associate in Medicine Boston Children's Hospital; Author: The Men They Will Become: The Nature and Nurture of Male Character.

Darren Newtson, Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Virginia.

Pedro Antonio Noguera, Ph.D., is the Judith K. Dimon Professor in Communities and Schools, Harvard Graduate School of Education; formerly: Professor in Social and Cultural Studies at the Graduate School of Education and the Director of the Institute for the Study of Social Change at the Univ. of CA, Berkeley; member of the U.S. Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control Task Force on Youth Violence, and Chair of the Committee on Ethics in Research and Human Rights for the American Educational Research Association. Noguera's research focuses on schools' responses to social and economic forces within the urban environment. He is author of The Imperatives of Power: Political Change and the Social Basis of Regime Support in Grenada and (forthcoming) Confronting the Urban: How City Schools Can Respond to the Forces of Social Inequality.

Joan Norris, Ph.D., C.Psych., Professor, Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition and Associate Dean, Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Guelph, Ontario; Research: intergenerational relations, value socialization in the family, stepfamily relationships in the aging family.

Gertrud Nunner-Winkler, Prof. Dr., Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research, Munich, Germany; Head of Research Group at MPI since 1981.

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Kay O'Brien, LMSW, ACSW, Lecturer and Coordinator of Service Learning, School of Social Work Baylor University.

Patricia O'Brien, PhD, MSW, Assistant Professor, Jane Addams College of Social Work, University of Illinois at Chicago; author: Making it in the "Free World": Women in Transition from Prison (New York: SUNY Press, 2001) and many other publications regarding incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women.

Michel Odent, M.D.; author of, among other titles, The Scientification of Love.

Peggy O’Mara, Editor and Publisher, Mothering Magazine.

Stacy Overstreet, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School Psychology Program, Tulane University; Professor Overstreet's research program is aimed at understanding how community violence exposure leads to negative developmental outcomes, and to improve efforts at helping children cope with community violence. Professor Overstreet's research utilizes an ecological-transactional model to understand the effects of community violence exposure on children's development as well as to identify protective factors that may buffer children from the negative effects of community.

Yolanda C. Padilla, Ph.D., LMSW-AP, Associate Professor, The University of Texas at Austin, School of Social Work.

Roberta L. Paikoff, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry, Institute for Juvenile Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago.

Clare Pain, M.D., Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the Universities of Toronto and Western Ontario; Clinical Director of the Psychological Trauma Assessment Clinic and Clinical Research Director of the Traumatic Stress Service.

Wansoo Park, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Georgia State University School of Social Work, College of Health & Human Sciences.

Sue Pearlmutter, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University.

Wilma Peebles-Wilkins, Ph.D., Dean and Professor, Boston University School of Social Work. Dr. Peebles-Wilkins has been Dean of Boston University School of Social Work since 1994. She has 35 years of experience in both the public and private sectors. Her publications cover issues associated with services to families and children; curriculum development; the contributions of black women to American social welfare; class, gender and racial disparities in social welfare; and research needs in managed health and behavioral health care. She is a member of too many boards to name here.

Hal Pepinsky, Ph.D., J.D., Human Services Faculty; Professor of Criminal Justice, Indiana University; author of, among others, The Geometry of Violence and Democracy (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991), A Criminologist's Quest for Peace (2000).; specialization: criminology and criminal justice, peacemaking, violence against children and healing processes.

Diane Perlman, Ph.D., Licensed clinical psychologist - Individual, couple, family therapy; Jungian therapy; trauma, EMDR, psychoneuroimmunology; Political psychologist; Co-chair, Committee on Global Violence and Security of the American Psychological Association and Psychologists for Social Responsibility; Fellow, The Solomon Asch Center for the Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict; Senior Felow, Global Dialogue Institute; Research Associate, the Citizens Panel on Ultimate Weapons at the Center on Violence and Human Survival; Vice President, The Philadelphia Project for Global Security; Founding member and Research Associate, The Transcending Trauma Project; Speaker for Physicians for Social Responsibility in the 1980s and 1990s; Founding Member and Divorce Coach, Collaborative Family Law Affiliates; Media Task Force, Psychotherapists for Social Responsibility.

Ellen C. Perrin, M.D., Chief of Floating Hospital’s Division of Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, Tufts-New England Medical Center; Past President of Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics.

Bruce D. Perry, M.D., Ph.D.; Senior Fellow, The ChildTrauma Academy, Houston, TX; Medical Director, Provincial Programs in Children's Mental Health, Alberta Mental Health Board, Calgary, AB.

Marc Pilisuk, Ph.D., Co-chair (with Diane Perlman, Ph.D.), Global Violence and Security Action Committee, Psychologists for Social Responsibility.

Stephen W. Porges, Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago; Director, Brain-Body Center, The Psychiatric Institute; Dr. Porges is a developmental psychologist and neuroscientist who has been studying the relation between the nervous system and behavior for over 30 years. His Polyvagal Theory, published in the journal Psychophysiology in 1995, led to the discovery of an integrated neural system that regulates social engagement behaviors. A description of this Social Engagement System was recently published in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology. The Polyvagal Theory led to the development of an intervention for children with severe problems in social interaction and communication..

Daniel M. Potter, MS, LCSW, BCD; Board Certified Diplomate in Clinical Social Work and Fellow of the Illinois Society for Clinical Social Work; President of the Potter Center for Development and Managing Partner at Mayer and Potter Forensic Psychology, both in Chicago, IL.

Alvin F. Poussaint, M.D.; Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; co-author of Raising Black Children; Dr. Poussaint is the Director of the Media Center of the Judge Baker Children's Center in Boston. He is also Faculty Associate Dean for Student Affairs at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Poussaint is a highly regarded expert on race relations in America and has served as a consultant to numerous government agencies and corporations. He has lectured at many colleges on prejudice in our society and the need for tolerance. In 1997, he received a New England Emmy award for Outstanding Children's Special as co-executive producer of 'Willoughby's Wonders'.

James W. Prescott, Ph.D., Director Institute of Humanistic Science.

Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Ph.D., Board of Governors Professor of Cognitive Science, Rutgers Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick; Dr. Pylyshyn is recipient of numerous fellowships and awards; received the Donald O. Hebb Award from the Canadian Psychological Association in June 1990, “for distinguished contributions to psychology as a science;” is a fellow if the Canadian Psychological Association and the American Association for Artificial Intelligence; has been a Killam Fellow, a fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford, a fellow at the MIT Center for Cognitive Science and a fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIAR). In 1998 he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. He is past president of two international societies: the Society for Philosophy and Psychology, and the Cognitive Science Society. For 9 years (1985-1994) he was national director of the Program in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. He is on the editorial boards of eight scientific journals, has been on several industrial or academic scientific advisory boards, and has published well over 100 scientific articles and book chapters.

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Qazi Mahmudur Rahman, Counselor, Special Educator and EMDR Psychotherapist, Psychotherapy Services, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mr. Rahman is an applied psychologist trainer for teachers and parents at TECSN Model School, Dhaka. He writes extensively on the subject of child abuse, and is currently coordinating a national media campaign to make the public aware of the negative effects on children of punishment. His aim is to develope a national law to prohibit corporal punishment of children in Bangladesh.

Robert M. Reece, M.D., Director of the MSPCC Institute for Professional Education at the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children; Director, Institute for Professional Education; Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Tufts University School of Medicine; Executive Editor of Quarterly Child Abuse Medical Update; Dr. Reece has worked as a clinician, teacher and researcher in child maltreatment since the early 1970s. He has served on numerous governmental Advisory Boards and Commissions relevant to child abuse and neglect. Program Chair for the Section on Child Abuse and Neglect of the American Academy of Pediatrics from 1992-1996 and then Chair of the Section from 1998-2002, he also served on the national Boards and Executive Committees of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, Prevent Child Abuse (America), and the National Children's Alliance. Dr. Reece was honored by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) as the "Outstanding Professional in the Field of Child Abuse" in 1997, by Tufts University as an "Outstanding Faculty Member 1998," and by the American Academy of Pediatrics with the "Award of Outstanding Service to Maltreated Children" in 2000. He is a founding member of the Helfer Society, an honorary society for child abuse physicians, and is named in all editions of the peer-reviewed book Best Doctors in America." He was elected to the American Pediatric Society as of January 1, 2003. He has published 39 original articles for medical journals and contributed 20 book chapters.

Olga Reyes, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Michael Rich, M.D., MPH; Director, Center on Media and Child Health, Children's Hospital Boston; Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Assistant Professor of Society, Health, and Human Development, Harvard School of Public Health; Committee on Public Education, American Academy of Pediatrics; author/co-author of four American Academy of Pediatrics policy statements on media and child health; Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics, Fellow of the Society for Adolescent Medicine.

James Ritchie, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Psychology, University of Waikato, New Zealand; Honoury Life Fellow, New Zealand Psychological Society; co-author with Jane Ritchie of Spare the Rod and The Next Generation: Chld Rearing in New Zealand.

Jane Ritchie, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. She and her husband, James, have been long-time advocates of legal change to remove parents' and caregivers' rights 'to use force by way of correction provided the force used is legal in the circumstances' (Section 59 of the New Zealand Crimes Act, 1961). They are the authors of Spare the Rod and The Next Generation: Chld Rearing in New Zealand.

Samuel Ritvo, M.D., Clinical Professor in Psychiatry at Yale University; Member, American Psychiatric Assoc. and the American Psychoanalytic Assoc.

Marsha Rosenbaum, Ph.D., Director, Safety First Project of the Drug Policy Alliance, San Francisco.

Edward D. Rossini, Ph.D., Director, School of Psychology, Roosevelt University.

Louise Marie Roth, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Arizona.

Donald Rothberg, Affiliate, Saybrook Graduate School and Buddhist Peace Fellowship, California.

Ronald H. Rozensky, Ph.D., ABPP; Professor and Chair, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida.

Richard M. Ryan, Ph.D., Professor of Clinical and Social Psychology, University of Rochester; Dr. Ryan is a clinical faculty member whose research focuses on the effects of social contexts on human motivation, personality development, and well-being.

Russell A. Sabella, Ph.D., associate professor of counseling, Florida Gulf Coast University; specializing in pre-K - 12 comprehensive developmental school counseling.

Delia Saenz, Ph.D., Associate Professsor, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University.

Bernadette Saunders, Lecturer, Social Work, Monash University, Australia; Child Abuse and Family Violence Research Unit; publications include: Critical review of the literature on risk assessment in child protection, with Chris Goddard, Discussion Paper on the Physical Discipline of Children with Chris Goddard, Agenda for Change - AACA Conference Outcomes, with Joe Tucci, Chris Goddard, & Janet Stanley (Eds), Agenda for Change - Selected Conference Papers with Joe Tucci, Chris Goddard, & Janet Stanley (Eds).

Daniel G. Saunders, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School of Social Work, University of Michigan. Dr. Saunders focuses his research on family violence; principal investigator for two research projects: "Preventing Injuries from Marital Violence," funded by the Centers for Disease Control, and "The Traumatic Aftermath of Violence Against Wives," funded by the National Institute of Mental Health; served as a program evaluator of services for men who batter, battered women, and their children; currently co-director of the University's Interdisciplinary Research Program on Violence Across the Lifespan.

Leonard Saxe, Ph.D., Professor of Social Policy and Management, The Heller School for Social Policy and Management; Director of the Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies, Brandeis University. Professor Saxe is an author and/or editor of nearly 200 publications. He has been a Science Fellow for the United States Congress and was a Fulbright Professor at Haifa University, Israel. In 1989, Professor Saxe was awarded the American Psychological Association's prize for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, Early Career.

Robert Schilling, Ph.D., Professor of Social Welfare, School of Public Policy and Social Research, University of California - Los Angeles; formerly professor at Columbia University School of Social Work, where he co-founded and directed the Social Intervention Group. Dr. Shilling has published over 120 publications, including articles in Social Work, Science, The New England Journal of Medicine, The Journal of the American Medical Association, The American Journal of Public Health, and The American Psychologist.

David Schonfeld, M.D., Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Child Study, Yale University School of Medicine; Head of the Subsection of Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics; Director of the Fellowship Program in Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics at Yale.

Sanford F. Schram, Ph.D., Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research, Acting Director, Center on Ethnicities, Communities and Social Policy, Bryn Mawr College; author of Praxis for the Poor: Piven and Cloward and the Future of Social Science in Social Welfare (2002), After Welfare: The Culture of Postindustrial Social Policy (2000), and Words of Welfare: The Poverty of Social Science and the Social Science of Poverty (1995).

Beth M. Schwartz, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology, Department Chair, Faculty Development Director, Randolph-Macon Woman's College, Lynchburg, VA.

Emily Scott-Lowe, Ph.D., LCSW, instructor of human development, Pepperdine University; therapist in the Student Counseling Center. Dr. Emily Scott-Lowe, together with her husband, Dennis Lowe (also a signatory of this letter) has conducted countless seminars enriching marriages and families throughout the United States and in Europe.

Elizabeth A. Seagull, Ph.D.; Diplomate in Clinical Psychology, ABPP; Professor Emeritus, Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, Michigan State University; APA Fellow.

William Sears, M.D., Clinical Associate Professor at the University of California School of Medicine Irvine; Dr. Sears, leading exponent of Attachment Parenting, is one of America's most renowned pediatricians. He has been a pediatrician for twenty years. With his wife, Martha Sears, R. N., he is the author of numerous books, including, The Baby Book: Everything You Need to Know About Your Baby - From Birth to Age Two, The Attachment Parenting Book: The Commonsense Guide to Understanding and Nurturing Your Baby, 25 Things Every New Mother Should Know, The A. D. D. Book: New Understanding, New Approaches to Parenting, Becoming a Father: How to Nurture & Enjoy Your Family, The Birth Book: Everything You Need to Know to Have a Safe & Satisfying Birth, The Successful Child, The Family Nutrition Book, and others. Dr. Sears' Web site is

Harry Segal, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Depts. of Psychology & Human Development, Cornell University.

Robert Sege, M.D., Ph.D., Director, Pediatric and Adolescent Health Research Center, Tufts- New England Medical Center. Dr. Sege's research involves the development of a health care response to violence involving children and adolescents. He is the author of original research articles, reviews, and textbook chapters advocating an effective health care system role in violence prevention. In cooperation with the Massachusetts Medical Society, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, Dr. Sege and his colleagues have developed and distributed education programs for professionals and parents to help reduce the risk of violence and child abuse. Dr. Sege has also advised local, state, and federal agencies concerned with developing a comprehensive policy approach to help understand and reduce violence-related injuries. Dr. Sege is a member of the core faculty of the Harvard Injury Control Research Center and its Harvard Youth Violence Prevention Center, and Chairman of the Massachusetts Medical Society Committee on Violence.

Amy Shapiro, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth.

Elsa G. Shapiro, Ph.D., ABPP, LP, Professor of Pediatrics and Neurology, Director, Pediatric Neuropsychology Division of Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience, University of Minnesota.

Phillip R. Shaver, Ph.D., Professor and Department Chair, University of California, Davis; Fellow of APA and APS; Co-Editor, Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications.

Kennon M. Sheldon, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Missouri--Columbia; formerly Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Rochester (1994 - 1997); Member of American Psychological Association since 1988; author of numerous articles in scientific journals; lead author of the forthcoming book from Yale University Press, Self-determination theory in the clinic: Motivating physical and psychological health.

Harvey Shrum, Ph.D., Re-Entry Coordinator/Instructor (Folsom State Prison); Correctional Logotherapist; Franklin-Covey Reality Workshop Master Facilitator; Intensive Journal intern; Special Education/Secondary/Community College teaching credentials; Ed.D. in Curriculum & Instruction; M.A. in Secondary Education & Teaching Educationally Handicapped; B.A. in Math & Foreign Languages; serve on 5 boards; writer of self-help & children's books.

Murray Sidman, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston; Senior Research Associate of the New England Center for Children; Dr. Murray Sidman is known for his classic research book, Tactics of Scientific Research: Evaluating Experimental Data in Psychology (1960/1988); Among his other titles are Equivalence Relations and Behavior: A Research Story (1993) and Coercion and Its Fallout (2001).

Laurence R. Simon, Ph.D., Professor of International Development; Director, Sustainable International Development Graduate Program and Center for International Development, The Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University

Mark I. Singer, Ph.D., Professor of Social Work and Director, Dual Disorders Research Program; Co-Director, Center on Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University.

Roxane Cohen Silver, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California, Irvine.

Mary Skinner, M.Ed., Education Program Development Coordinator, Tacoma Community College, Washington.

Peter J. Smith, LCSW, Diplomate in Clinical Social Work, Private Practice, Medford, Oregon.

Aletha Solter, Ph.D.; developmental psychologist and director of the Aware Parenting Institute (; author of three books translated into seven languages: The Aware Baby, Helping Young Children Flourish, and Tears and Tantrums; workshop leader for parents and professionals; recognized internationally as an expert on attachment, trauma, and non-punitive discipline.

Eli Somer, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology, School of Social Work, University of Haifa, Israel; Founder, Israel Institute for Treatment and Study of Stress; Director, Unit for Treatment and Study of Traumatic Stress, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Studies of the University of Haifa; International Director, International Society for the Study of Dissociation.

Paul S. Spear, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Department of Psychology, California State University, Chico; Member of APA.

David W. Springer, Ph.D., LMSW-ACP, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, Associate Professor, The University of Texas at Austin, School of Social Work. One of Dr. Springer's main areas interest is clinical assessment and intervention with adolescents and families.

Julian C. Stanley, Ph.D., professor emeritus of psychology and Director of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY), both at the Johns Hopkins University. Fellow of six divisions of the American Psychological Association. Former president of the American Educational Research Association, the National Council on Measurement in Education, and the APA Divisions of Educational Psychology and of Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics. Fellow, National Academy of Education. Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science. Fellow, American Statistical Association. Originator (in 1972) of the national talent searches for intellectually talented youth that span the United States and also of many academic summer programs.

Lee H. Staples, Ph.D., MSW, Clinical Professor, Acting Chair, Macro Practice, Boston University School of Social Work.

William Steele, MSW, Psy.D., Founder and Director of The National Institute For Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), established in 1990. Over 3,000 school and agency professionals have been certified by the Institute as Trauma and Loss School Specialists and Trauma and Loss Consultants. TLC's Structured Sensory Interventions for Children, Adolescents, Parents (SITCAP) are being used for schools and agencies across the country. Dr. Steele has authored numerous books, articles and intervention programs for pre-school through adolescent children.

Henry T. Stein, Ph.D., Director, Alfred Adler Institutes of San Francisco & Northwestern Washington Distance Training in Classical Adlerian Psychotherapy.

William Wren Stine, Ph.D., Faculty, Department of Psychology, University of New Hampshire, Durham.

Gary Stollak, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychology, Michigan State University; membership: American Psychological Association, Section 1, Division 12 (Section on Clinical Child Psychology), American Psychological Society, Society for Research in Child Development, American Association of Applied & Preventive Psychology, Michigan and International Associations for Infant Mental Health; primary area of interest: Child and family psychopathology: Etiology, assessment, treatment, and prevention Family violence and maltreatment.

Murray Straus, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology and Co-Director Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, Durham; author of, among other titles, Beating the Devil Out of Them.

David Szydlo, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Research Scientist, Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine; Education and Curriculum Development; Director for the National Center for Children Exposed to Violence; Senior Clinician for Child Development – Community Policing Program.

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Marcy Tanter, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of English, Director of Sophomore Literature, Tarleton State University, Texas.

Max Taylor , Ph.D., C. Forensic Psychol., Professor and Head of Department of Applied Psychology (, University College, Cork, Republic of Ireland; Director, COPINE Project.

Bethany Teachman, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia.

Deborah W. Tegano, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Child and Family Studies, The University of Tennessee

Martin H. Teicher, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School & Director of the Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program, McLean Hospital; author of over 150 scientific articles including several on the deleterious effects of childhood abuse and early stress on brain development.

Julien Teitler, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Social Work, Associate Research Scholar and Director of the Social Indicators Survey, Columbia School of Social Work, Columbia University.

Joseph J. Tepas III, M.D., Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics at the University of Florida College of Medicine; director of surgical training at the University of Florida Health Science Center Jacksonville and was principal investigator for Florida's Emergency Medical Services for Children federal demonstration project. Dr. Tepas' major research efforts have focused on care of the injured child and have resulted in his appointment to numerous national committees. He is currently Chairman of the Committee on Trauma of the American Pediatric Surgical Association and Chairman of the Quality Improvement Subcommittee and member of the Executive Committee of the Committee on Trauma of the American College of Surgeons.

Ruth G. Thomas, Professor, Department of Work, Community & Family Education, College of Education, University of Minnesota.

Edward H. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Professor of Sociology, Director, Gerontology Studies Program, Department of Sociology & Anthropology, Holy Cross College.

Kathy R. Thornburg, Ph.D., Professor of Human Development and Family Studies and Director of the Center for Family Policy and Research, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri; Dr. Thornburg is past-president of National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Patrick Tolan, Ph.D., Professor, Director of the Institute for Juvenile Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago; Dr. Tolan is a Fellow of APA Divisions 27, 37 & 43 and of the International Society for Research on Aggression. He is also a fellow of the UIC Great Cities Institute.

Jerry Townsend, School psychologist (retired); member, California Association of School Psychologists and National Association of School Psychologists.

John W. Travis, M.D., M.P.H.; authored the original Wellness Inventory; co-authored The Wellness Workbook; founded the first wellness center in the U.S. (Wellness Resource Center, Mill Valley, CA, 1975) and co-founded, with 20 other child development professionals, the Alliance for Transforming the Lives of Children.

Chris Trotter, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Acting Head of Department, Department of Social Work, Faculty of Medicine, Monash University, Australia. Dr. Trotter's latest book is Working With Involuntary Clients which has been published by Allen and Unwin.

Michael Trout, MA, Director, The Infant-Parent Institute, Champaign, Illinois.

Joe Tucci, CEO, Australians Against Child Abuse, a national children's charity aiming to prevent child abuse and reduce the harm it causes to children, families and the community. Web site: or .

James S. Uleman, Ph.D., Fellow, American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society, Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, New York University; research in "The Role of Intentions and Culture in Cognitive Processes"; Associate Editor, Social Cognition; recipient of research grants from National Science Foundation and National Institute of Mental Health; published numerous articles in scientific journals.

Robert J. Vallerand, Ph.D., Professor, Research Laboratory on Social Behavior, Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal.

Thomas R. Verny, M.D., D. Psych., FRCPC, adjunct professor of Prenatal and Perinatal Development at St. Mary's University, Minneapolis, Minnesota and senior faculty at The Santa Barbara Graduate Institute. He has previously taught at Harvard University, University of Toronto and York University, Toronto. Author of, among others: Inside Groups(1974), The Secret Life of the Unborn Child (with John Kelly), (1981), Parenting Your Unborn Child, Doubleday, 1988, and Nurturing the Unborn Child (co-author Pamela Weintraub), (1991 and 1992), and most recently, TOMORROW'S BABY: The Art and Science of Parenting from Conception Through Infancy, written with Pamela Weintraub, (2002). In 1983 Dr. Verny founded the Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Association of North America (PPPANA, renamed APPPAH in 1995), and served as its president for eight years. In 1986 he launched the Association's Journal (Human Sciences Press, New York) which he edited from its inception until 1990. In 1987 Dr. Verny edited Pre- and Perinatal Psychology: An Introduction, published by Human Sciences Press. He is the author or co-author of 37 scientific papers and articles. In 1998 He collaborated with Sandra Collier to create LOVE CHORDS, a compilation of classical music for pregnancy published by The Childrens Group, Pickering, On., Canada.The Secret Life of the Unborn Child, mentioned above, became an international bestseller published in 27 countries. Dr. Verny has participated in more than 250 newspaper, radio and TV interviews, including appearances with Donahue, Merv Griffin, Oprah, Sally Jessy Raphael, Barbara Walters, and Unsolved Mysteries. Vision TV, Toronto, Canada, produced a 15-minute special on Verny and his book, Gifts of Our Fathers, in the spring of 1996. He has lectured and given workshops on pre and perinatal psychology frequently not only in Canada and the United States but also in Europe, South America and South-East Asia.

Rosario Villasana-Ruiz, Instructor, City College of San Francisco and Children's Council of San Francisco. Early Childhood Educator and consultant with Rudolf Steiner College, and LifeWays NorthAmerica.

Edward De Vos, Ed.D., is associate director of Health & Human Development Programs and director of HHD's Center for Violence and Injury Prevention. A senior scientist at Education Development Center, Inc. since 1988, he has extensive experience managing large-scale multi-site and multi-state research and evaluation efforts. Dr. De Vos is a research psychologist with a long-standing commitment to violence issues, from both a research and social policy perspective. He is on the faculty of the Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology and is a member of the American Psychological Association, the American Evaluation Association, the American Public Health Association, and the American Statistical Association.

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Buddy Wagner, Ph.D., Director of Counseling and Career Development Center, School of Education, Mississippi College; teaching areas: advanced developmental psychology and personality.

Froma Walsh, Ph.D., Professor, School of Social Service Administration & Department of Psychiatry; Co-Director, Center for Family Health University of Chicago.

Richard S. Wampler, Ph.D., M.S.W., Associate Professor, Marriage and Family Therapy Program, Human Development and Family Studies, Texas Tech University.

Marsha Weinraub, Ph.D., Laura H. Carnell Professor of Psychology and Director, Developmental Program, Temple University; Dr. Weinraub has published widely in the areas of infant attachment, gender role development, and family interactions; is most noted for her studies of the effects of early care, single parenting and maternal employment on parent-child relationships and child development. Dr. Weinraub is the author or co-author of more than 120 scholarly articles has served on the editorial boards of Child Development and Psychology of Women; testified concerning the effects of early childcare before the U.S. Congress in 1997 in the first ever hearings conducted by the Women's Congressional Caucus.

Richard Weissbourd , Ph.D., Lecturer on Education, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Dr. Weissbourd is author of The Vulnerable Child: What Really Hurts America's Children and What We Can Do About It; his main areas of expertese include: at-risk youth, family issues, moral and ethical studies, parenting issues, poverty and children, reading development, reform issues and urban shooling.

Joan Welkowitz, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology; Department of Psychology, New York University; research interests: brain mechanisms underlying neuropsychological processing of emotion, affective disorders, and time patterns of speech in conversational interactions; presently funded by NIMH to explore neuroanatomical structures involved in emotion by focusing on brain-damaged patients with specified lesions; served for 15 years as a research consultant at Millhauser Labs at NYU Medical Center.

M. Gawain Wells, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University.

Ralph Welsh, Ph.D., clinical psychologist working with adjudicated youth and their families for over 20 years in the Bridgeport, Connecticut area; published numerous articles in scholarly journals on juvenile delinquency.

Patsy White, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon.

Marcy Whitebook, Ph.D., Director and Senior Researcher, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley.

Teresa Whitehurst, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist and writer who currently works in research on leadership at Harvard University. For four years she was a clinical instructor at Harvard Medical School, serving as director of the Multiple Family Group Program at McLean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts; author of How Would Jesus Raise a Child? (Baker Books, 2003), The Practical Therapist (Jain Publishing Company, 1995).

Doni P. Whitsett, Ph.D., Clinical Associate Professor, University of Southern California School of Social Work, Los Angeles.

Deborah Schild Wilkinson, Ph.D., MPH, MSW, Assistant Professor, University of Michigan School of Social Work.

Geoffrey Williams, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rochester.

Sharon E. Williams, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, Florida A & M University.

Melvin N. Wilson, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia; research, and training activities generally focus on understanding contextual processes and outcomes in African American families and service delivery in domestic violence issues; is currently working on developing intervention protocols aimed at helping young men meet family responsibilities and involvements; has an intervention and research evaluation project focused on providing services to men who are court-ordered for treatment of wife-battering.

Timothy D. Wilson, Sherrell J. Aston Professor of Psychology and Chair Department of Psychology, University of Virginia; author of Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious (2002).

Deborah Du Nann Winter, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Whitman College; Past-President, Psychologists for Social Responsibility.

Susan S. Witte, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Columbia University School of Social Work; Associate Director, Columbia University Social Intervention Group.

Janis Wolak, J.D., Research Assistant Professor, Crimes against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire.

Diana Mahabir Wyatt, Chair of the Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Trinidad and Tobago; columnist on social, economic and political matters; produced and presented a twelve segment T.V. presentation on violence against women and children; serves on Boards of SERVOL, the National Self-Help Commission and the Trinidad and Tobago Coalition Against Domestic Violence; founder and patron of The Shelter, a Home for Battered Women and Children; appointed Acting Senator is 1991, helped pilot through Parliament Trinidad and Tobego's Domestic Violence Act, and continues to promote legislation dealing with social, educational and economic issues and with the protection of women and children from abuse.

cc: Mary Campbell, Children, Youth, and Families Officer, APA

Appendix A: An Operational Definition of Corporal Punishment:
Corporal punishment refers to any action of a parent, other adult, or caretaker that intentionally inflicts or causes pain or physical discomfort in a child for the purposes of punishment or containment. Corporal punishment includes, but is not limited to, spanking, slapping, smacking, hitting, shaking, biting, shoving or pulling a child; denying, restricting or rationing a child's use of the toilet; forcing physical exertion, requiring a child to remain motionless, or isolation of a child in confining spaces; denying a child access to needed water, food, or sleep. Such treatment is potentially traumatic even if it does not meet the legal requirements for a definition of child abuse under current legislation.

Appendix B. The Text of the 1975 APA Resolution on Corporal Punishment:

Council voted to adopt the following resolution on corporal punishment:

WHEREAS: The resort to corporal punishment tends to reduce the likelihood of employing more effective, humane, and creative ways of interacting with children;

WHEREAS: it is evident that socially acceptable goals of education, training, and socialization can be achieved without the use of physical violence against children, and that children so raised, grow to moral and competent adulthood;

WHEREAS: Corporal punishment intended to influence "undesirable responses" may create in the child the impression that he or she is an "undesirable person"; and an impression that lowers self-esteem and may have chronic consequences;

WHEREAS: Research has shown that to a considerable extent children learn by imitating the behavior of adults, especially those they are dependent upon; and the use of corporal punishment by adults having authority over children is likely to train children to use physical violence to control behavior rather than rational persuasion, education, and intelligent forms of both positive and negative reinforcement;

WHEREAS: Research has shown that the effective use of punishment in eliminating undesirable behavior requires precision in timing, duration, intensity, and specificity, as well as considerable sophistication in controlling a variety of relevant environmental and cognitive factors, such that punishment administered in institutional settings, without attention to all these factors, is likely to instill hostility, rage, and a sense of powerlessness without reducing the undesirable behavior;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: That the American Psychological Association opposes the use of corporal punishment in schools, juvenile facilities, child care nurseries, and all other institutions, public or private, where children are cared for or educated (Conger, 1975).

See response of July 31, 2003 to PTAVE from Robert J.Sternberg, Ph.D., President, American Psychological Association at

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